America's Oldest Art ielts reading academic

America’s Oldest Art IELTS Reading Academic

America’s Oldest Art IELTS Reading Academic

Reading Passage 3

America’s Oldest Art

Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of Southeast America’s most significant and spectacular rock-art. Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park of the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The art is being dated to around 25.CC0 or perhaps. According to some archaeologists, even 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely held view that America was first colonized from the north, via the Bering Straits from eastern Siberia at around 10.000 BC. only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter.

Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to. and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. Wild animals and human figures dominate the an. and are incorporated into often-complex scenes involving hunting, supernatural beings, fighting and dancing. The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The large mammals are usually planted in groups and tend to be shown a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties. IELTSxPRESS

Processions – lines of human and animal figures – also appear of great importance to these ancient artists. Might such lines represent family units or groups of warriors? On a number of panels, rows of stylized figures, some numbering up to 30 individual figures, were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface, so evoking the contours of the seconding landscape. Other interesting, but very rare, occurrences are scenes that show small human figures holding on to and dancing around a tree, possibly involved in some tom of a ritual dance.

Due to the favourable climatic conditions. The imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival. The chemical and mineral quantities of the rock on which the imagery is painted is fragile and on several panels it is unstable. As well as the secretion of sodium carbonate on the rock surface, complete panel sections have, over the ancient and recent past, broken away from the main rock surface. These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in dating several major rock-art sites.

Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult due to the non-existence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated. However, there am a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation. Thus, at Toca do Roquismo da Pedra Furada. rock-art researcher Niede Guidon managed to obtain a number of dates. At different levels of excavation, she located fallen painted rock fragments, which she was able to date to at least 36,000 years ago. Along with toe painted fragments, crude stone tools were found. Also discovered wore a series of scientifically datable sites of fireplaces, or hearths, the earliest dated to 46,000 BC arguably the oldest date for human habitation in America.

However, these conclusions are not without controversy. Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires. Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years old, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating.

Adding further fool to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock- art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles. However, the diversity of imagery and the narrative the paintings create from each of the many sites within the National Park suggests different artists were probably making their art at different times, and potentially using each site over many thousands of years.

With fierce debates thus raging over tho dating, where these artists originate from is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some palaeo – anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 63.000 years or more ago, while others suggest a more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean. ielts x press

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Yet, while either hypothesis is plausible, there is still no supporting archaeological evidence between the South American coastline and the interior. Rather, it seems possible that there were a number of waves of human colonization of the Americas occurring possibly over a 60,000-100,000 year period, probably using the Bering Straits as a land bridge to cross into the Americas.

Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in the state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC. So this is a fierce debate that is likely to go on for many more years. However, the splendid rock art and its allied anthropology of northeast Brazil, described here, is playing a huge and significant role in the discussion.

Questions 27-29
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about ________

A. the way primitive people lived in North America.
B. the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.
C. the origin of the people who crossed the Bering Straits.
D. the variety of cultures which developed in South America.

28. How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted?

A. to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby
B. to emphasize the shape of different animals
C. to give added light and shade to their paintings
D. to give the impression of distance in complex works

29. In the fourth paragraph, what does the winter say that is unusual about the rock-artists of Serra da Capivara?

A. They had a very wide range of subject-matter.
B. Their work often appears to be illustrating a story.
C. They tended to use a variety of styles in one painting.
D. They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones.

Questions 30-36
In boxes 30-36 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

30. Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.
31. The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.
32. The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans.
33. Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region.
34. The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists.
35. The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals. IELTS x pre ss
36. The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidon’s dating of the paintings.

Questions 37-40
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F below.

A. are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists.
B. do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.
C. are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.
D. have not been accepted by academics outside America.
E. centre on whether or not they are actually man-made.
F. reflect the advances in scientific dating methods.

37. Materials derived from plants or animals _________
38. The discussions about the ancient hearths _________
39. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from _________
40. The finds of archaeologists in Oregon _________

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America’s Oldest Art IELTS Reading Answers

27 B

28 A

29 D

30 No

31 Yes

32 Not Given

33 No

34 Yes

35 Not Given

36 No

37 C

38 E

39 A

40 B


America’s Oldest Art IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

27. According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about …………………….

Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: If correct, this is set to challenge die widely field view that America was first colonized from the north, via the Bering Straits from eastern Siberia at around 10,000 BC only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter.
Keywords: rock-art, Serra da Capivara
Keyword Location: Paragraph 1, Lines 5th to 8th
Explanation: This is the correct option as the current ideas of America being colonized from the north in 10,000BC and the south in the later millennia would change since rock arts would prove that the earliest people arrived much before in South America.

28. How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted?

Answer: A
Supporting Sentence: The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The large mammals are usually painted in groups and tend to be shown in a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties.
Keywords: ancient, artists, use, rock, painted
Keyword Location: Paragraph 2, 4th line
Explanation: This is the correct option as the artists depicted whatever they observed in their surroundings which was then the countryside. These depictions included the animals that roamed in the forests. It is mentioned that the large mammals were usually painted in groups, and generally appeared in running stances as if they were trying to escape hunting parties.


29. In the fourth paragraph, what does the writer say is unusual about the rock artists of Serra da Capivara?

Answer: D
Supporting Sentence: Adding further fool to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles.
Keywords: winter, unusual, rock artists, Serra da Capivara
Keyword Location: Paragraph 4, 5th line
Explanation: This is the correct option as it is clearly mentioned that the artists of Serra da Capivara did not draw over old paintings which are most common with other rock artists. This was uncommon in the case of rock arts as artists drew over old motifs. This actually makes it hard to identify the chronology of the images or styles.


30. Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.

Answer: NO
Supporting Sentence: Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park o’ the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy.
Keywords: archaeologist, completed, survey, rock-art, Piaui
Keyword Location: Paragraph 1, 2nd line
Explanation: The excavations are still going on and new artworks are being discovered in Serra da Capivara, Piauni, therefore the archaeologists have not yet completed their survey. The word ‘ongoing’ clearly states the continuation of the survey, thereby making the answer selection correct. ielts xpress

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31. The location of the rock art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.

Answer: YES
Supporting Sentence: Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. ielts xpress
Keywords: location, rock-art, suggests, artists, significant role, society
Keyword Location: Paragraph 2, 1st line
Explanation: It was difficult to enter the mentioned rock art sites before they turned into a National Park. Considering the lack of technology in ancient times, these sites would not have been easily accessible by the early people who drew the rock arts thus giving them an important stature in that society.


32. The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by ancient humans.

Answer: NOT GIVEN
Explanation: The animals as well as human figures painted on these rock arts probably represented family units or groups of warriors thus suggesting that they held an important place for them. However, if the animals were regarded as sacred by ancient people is not mentioned by the writer.


33. Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region.

Answer: NO
Supporting Sentence: Due to the favourable climatic conditions. The imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival.
Keywords: paintings, animals, sacred, ancient humans
Keyword Location: Paragraph 3, 1st line
Explanation: The paintings are in a remarkable state as the climatic condition has helped in preserving most of the imagery. The factors that affect the preservation of the arts are conservation issues. Therefore, the selected answer ‘No’ justifies how weather changes don’t affect the paintings. ielts xpress


34. The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists.

Answer: YES
Supporting Sentence: These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in dating several major rock-art sites.
Keywords: paintings, buried, useful, archaeologists
Keyword Location: Paragraph 3, 5th line
Explanation: The paintings have been buried in floor deposits and the deposition due to erosion of soil on them has helped archaeologists to study these rock art sites and find their approximate dates. Therefore, the selected answer ‘Yes’ is the correct answer to the question ‘The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists’. IELTS XPRE S S


35. The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals.

Answer: NOT GIVEN
Explanation: In the excavations carried out, crude stone tools were found along with painted rock fragments which are dated by Niede Guidon. However, nothing more is mentioned about tools found or their usage by the writer.


36. The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidon’s dating of the paintings.

Answer: NO
Supporting Sentence: Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years ago, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating.
Keywords: North American, researchers, confirmed, Niede Guidon, dating, paintings
Keyword Location: Paragraph 4, 2nd line
Explanation: While Niede Guidon dated the rock 36.C03 years old, the North American researchers have suggested the rock arts to be 3730 years of age from their speculations and findings. Therefore it can be concluded that they have not confirmed Niede Guidon’s dating of the paintings.


37. Materials derived from plants or animals ……………

Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult over the non-existence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated.
Keywords: Materials, derived, plants, animals
Keyword Location: Paragraph 3, 7th line
Explanation: This is the correct option as the non-existence of plant and animal clearly states that any material derived from them were absent from rock art sites in Serra da Capivara.


38. The discussions about the ancient hearths ……………

Answer: E
Supporting Sentence: Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires.
Keywords: discussions, ancient, hearths
Keyword Location: Paragraph 4, 1st line
Explanation: This is the correct option as the critics from North America are in favour that the hearths may be a natural phenomenon due to seasonal brushwood fires. Whether they are man-made or not is a subject of discussion by other critics.


39. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from ……………

Answer: A
Supporting Sentence: With fierce debates thus raging over the dating, where these artists originate from is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some palaeoanthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 63,000 years or more ago, while others suggest more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean.
Keywords: Theories, first, South Americans, originated
Keyword Location: Paragraph 5, 1st line
Explanation: This is the correct option as the origin of South Americans have become a matter of debate amongst paleo-anthropologists who have suggested that modern humans may have originated from Africa following the Atlantic Ocean while others suggest colonization hailing from the Pacific Ocean.


40. The finds of archaeologists in Oregon …………..

Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in die state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC.
Keywords: finds, archaeologists, Oregon
Keyword Location: Paragraph 6, 1st line
Explanation: This is correct as even though the evidence from excavations hints at the earlier colonization of South America, the Oregon findings in North America do not support the earliest dates as the current dates of human evidence dates to 12,300years.


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