Monkeys and Forests ielts reading academic

Monkeys and Forests IELTS Reading Passage

Monkeys and Forests IELTS Reading Passage with Answers

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Monkeys and Forests

AS AN EAST WIND blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilarán, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.

A
Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female’s movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates – white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys – once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.

B
Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. “Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees because their eating habits are so flexible,” he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.

C
All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. “We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals,” Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of the toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees. ieltsxpress.com

D
The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explains their population boom in Santa Rosa. “Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several seasons,” Fedigan explains. “They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.”

E
Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years. iELTS XPress

F
The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.

G
Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkeypod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.

H
Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with faeces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects.

“Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature,” Estrada says. “We’re moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation of primates in human-modified landscapes.”

Questions 14-19
The Reading Passage has eight paragraphs A-H
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 14-19on your answer sheet.

14 a reference of reduction in Forest inhabitant
15 Only one species of monkey survived while the other two species were vanished.
16 a reason for Howler Monkey of choosing new leaves
17 mention to Howler Monkey’s nutrient and eating habits
18 a reference of asking farmers’ changing attitude toward wildlife
19 the advantage for Howler Monkey’s flexibility living in a segmented habitat

Questions 20-21
Look at the following places and the list of descriptions below.
Match each description with the correct place, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 20-22 on your answer sheet.

List of places

A Hacienda La Pacifica
B Santa Rosa National Park
C a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico
D Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico
E Amazon Basin

20 howler Monkey’s benefit to the local region’s agriculture
21 The original home for all three native monkeys
22 A place where Capuchins monkey comes for a better habitat

Questions 22-27
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.

The reasons for Howlers monkey survive better

in local region than other two species

– Howlers in La Pacifica since they can feed themselves with the leaf when 23_______ is not easily found

– Howlers have better ability to alleviate the 24_______, which old and young trees used to protect themselves)

– when compared to that of spider monkeys and capuchin monkeys, the 25_______ rate of Howlers is relatively faster (round for just every 2 years).

– the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes as the leaves howlers eat hold high content of 26_______, which ensure them to resist to continuous 27_______ in Guanacaste.


Monkeys and Forests IELTS Reading Passage IELTS Reading Answers

14. G

15. A

16. C

17. B

18. G

19. D

20. C

21. A

22. B

23. fruit

24. plant toxins/ toxin

25. reproduction/reproduce

26. water

27. drought


Monkeys and Forests IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

a reference of reduction in Forest inhabitants.

Answer: G
Supporting Sentence: Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted figs, monkeypods, and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut.
Keyword: forest inhabitant, reduction
Keyword Location:: 5th Line, Section G
Explanation: Cacao plants, like many varieties of coffee, require shade to flourish, so landowners planted figs, monkeypods, and other tall trees 40 years ago to establish a protective canopy over their crop. After adjacent forests were cut down, the howlers moved in around 25 years ago. So, the correct match for the statement is G.


Only one species of monkey survived while the other two species have vanished.

Answer: A
Supporting Sentence: Other native primates — white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys — once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.
Keywords: vanish, species
Keyword Location::
Last Line, Section A.
Explanation:
Other native primates, such as white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys, were originally prevalent in this area but became extinct after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. The majority of the surrounding terrain had been cleared for pasture. So, the correct match for the statement is A.


a reason for Howler Monkey choosing new leaves.

Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients.
Keyword: howler, new leaves
Keyword Location:: 3rd Line, Section C
Explanation: Long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can improve leaf-eaters ability to neutralize the poison and absorb leaf nutrients. So, the correct match for the statement is C.


mention Howler Monkey’s nutrient and eating habits.

Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: They eat fruit when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. “Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees because their eating habits are so flexible,” he says.
Keyword: Eating habits, Nutrient
Keyword Location:: 2nd Line, Section B
Explanation: They consume fruit when it is available, but unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, they do not rely on extensive regions of fruiting trees. “Because their dietary habits are so adaptable, howlers can live anywhere there are a half-dozen trees,” he explains. So, the correct match for the statement is B.


a reference of asking farmers’ changing attitude toward wildlife.

Answer: H
Supporting Sentence: He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects.
Keywords: farmer, wildlife
Keyword Location:
Last Line, Section H
Explanation:
He believes that farmers would recognize the benefits of working with wild monkeys, which may include tourist ventures. So, the correct match for the statement is H.


the advantage for Howler Monkey’s flexibility living in a segmented habitat.

Answer: D
Supporting Sentence: “Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons, Fedigan explains.“ They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them.
Keyword: segmented habitat
Keyword Location:: 7th Line, Section D
Explanation: Fedigan explains why howler monkeys are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys. They may survive in a short home range as long as the trees provide adequate food. So, the correct match for the statement is D.


Howler Monkey’s benefit to the local region’s agriculture

Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkeypod, and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop.
Keyword: local region
Keyword Location:: 3rd Line, Section C
Explanation: Alejandro Estrada and his colleagues recently researched the ecology of a population of mantled howler monkeys who live on a cocoa plantation in Tabasco, Mexico, in a habitat that has been completely transformed by humans. Cacao plants, like many coffee kinds, require shade to thrive, thus landowners planted fig, monkeypod, and other tall trees 40 years ago to provide a protective canopy over their crop. So, C is the right answer.


Original home for all three native monkeys

Answer: A
Supporting Sentence: This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates — white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys — once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s.
Keyword: native monkey, the original home
Keyword Location:: 3rd Line, Section A
Explanation: The howler is part of a community that has resided at Hacienda La Pacifica, a thriving cattle ranch in Guanacaste province, for decades. White-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys were originally plentiful in this area, but they vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. So, A is the right answer.


A place where Capuchins monkey comes for a better habitat

Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys.
Keywords: capuchins, habitat
Keyword Location:
1st Line, Section D
Explanation:
Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica, is studying the significance of mature trees to primates. Mantled howlers, white-faced capuchins, and spider monkeys all have populations in the park. So, B is the right answer.


Question 10:

Answer: fruit/ the fruit
Supporting Sentence: Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees.
Keyword: Howlers, La Pacifica
Keyword Location:: 1st Line, Section B
Explanation: Glander argues that howlers survive at La Pacifica because they consume leaves. They eat fruit when it’s available, but they don’t rely on big regions of fruiting trees like capuchin and spider monkeys do.


Question 11:

Answer: plant toxin/ toxin
Supporting Sentence: In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves, and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of the toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees.
Keyword: alleviate, howlers
Keyword Location:: Last Line, Section C
Explanation: Because trees in younger forests devote most of their limited energy to developing wood, leaves, and fruit, they create far less poison than mature, old-growth trees.


Question 12:

Answer: reproduction/ reproduce
Supporting Sentence: Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area.
Keyword: rate, faster
Keyword Location:: 1st Line, Section E
Explanation: In addition, howler monkeys reproduce more quickly than other monkey species in the area.


Question 13:

Answer: water
Supporting Sentence: The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes.
Keyword: resist
Keyword Location:: 1st Line, Section F
Explanation: Howler monkeys can thrive away from open streams and water holes because the leaves they consume store lots of water.


Question 14:


Answer: drought
Supporting Sentence: The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.
Keyword: Guanacaste
Keyword Location:: Section F
Explanation: Howler monkeys can thrive away from open streams and water holes because the leaves they consume store lots of water. This capacity gives them a significant edge over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have been harmed by Guanacaste’s long-running drought.


Also Check:  The Return of Monkey Life IELTS Reading Academic

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